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Perspective

Carbon capture, storage and utilisation

CCUS: Connecting the dots with a developed and modern infrastructure

Be it as a waste product or as a valuable commodity, moving CO₂ from a to b to c, or in other words from CC to U or S, requires an integrated infrastructure. One that simultaneously connects the Danish value chain and connects the rest of the world to Denmark.
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15 November 2022
CCSU Whitepaper frontpage

White Paper: Carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

This article is part of the publication “Carbon capture, utilisation, and storage.

The content was produced in close collaboration with DI – Confederation of Danish Industries.

Download the publication

CO₂ can be transported in many ways: by rail, truck, ship and pipeline. Important CO₂ hubs in Denmark can be placed in Denmark’s effective and accessible ports, but also close to the largest CO₂ emitters or to the Danish electricity transmission grid.

CO₂ transport by ship is possible by transporting CO₂ either from major Danish ports or from other countries to storage sites in the North Sea. From the east, Denmark will be a convenient storage partner for large emitters from countries around the Baltic Sea. From the west, CO₂ can be shipped directly to storage in the Danish part of the North Sea. CO₂ transportation by ship is not yet an established business, contrary to e.g. LNG shipping. In order to transport sufficient quantities on each ship, the CO₂ must be liquefied by a combination of cooling and a pressure of approximately 20 bars. In comparison, LNG ship tanks are designed to a pressure of 6-7 bars. The tanks on a CO₂ ship must therefore be constructed with thicker walls, making the tanks heavier and more difficult to load and unload.

CO₂ is transported through pipelines by the pressure created by compressor stations. Similarly, the capture process is by itself a major source of energy use. But due to the widespread Danish central heating system, which heats approximately two thirds of all Danish households, Denmark has an opportunity to use excess heat from these processes.

Developing national infrastructure

A planning process has been initiated by the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Utilities that will tie together Danish emitters, ports and CCU facilities in a Danish CO₂ pipeline system. This system can be a combination of smaller plastic pipe connections at the local level and bigger transmission pipes. The bigger pipes may connect the Greater Copenhagen area with one or two onshore or near-shore storage sites in Zealand, and the Aalborg area with one or two onshore or near-shore sites in Jutland. A third pipeline can be a direct link from Nybro at Jutland’s North Sea coast to storage sites in the North Sea.

… and international infrastructure

In a European context, Denmark will cooperate with other countries in order to receive foreign CO₂ and store it in the Danish underground. To this end, bilateral agreements have been reached with the likes of Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. Denmark will also cooperate with other North Sea countries that have large storage capacities and may share a combined North Sea pipeline infrastructure.

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